beginning of the 19th century, a great attention was given to researches and the studies of cities, specially the European universe because the development of civilization of any nation or community. Dohuk locates in the western north of Iraq, it is (470)km far away from the capital (Baghdad). Dohuk locates in the east of Grinech line and the south of the tropical line. It is (585)m. over the sea level. Dohuk location is an important and strategically location regarding the historical and geographical sides. Dohuk city was mentioned in the Mosul province dairy of 1907, it mentioned "Dohuk is the port of Kurdistan". Dohuk is surrounded by mountains from three sides only the western side towards Sumail plain. There are two small rivers inside Dohuk city, the greater is called Dohuk river and the other is called (Heshkaro) which means the dry river. Those two rivers are linked with each other in the westerns south of city. Those two rivers have a good significance especially to irrigate orchards and fruits farms inside the city. In the 4th of June 1980 the work was started to build an irrigation dam on Dohuk River.
Dohuk lies in the northwest of Iraq and is the northern-most governorate. It is also the western-most governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. It is strategically located because it lies at the junction of the borders of Iraq, Turkey and Syria in the heart of Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Dohuk lies in the midst of hills, valleys and mountains. It is somewhat in the shape of irregular rectangle, and the 43 East Longitude passes through the city centre and divides the governorate in half. The governorate itself lies in Northern Temperature Zone between the East Longitude of 43 10’ E and 44 10’ E and the North Latitudes of 36 40’ N and 37 20’ N. According to the latest census, the population (including districts of Aqrah and Shiekhan) is estimated to be about 820, 000 dispersed over 1,179 towns and villages. go to world population every second
According to most of the historians, the most famous opinion regarding the name of (Dohuk) is the opinion of the Kurdish historian (Hussein Huzni Mokriani) He said "The reason behind calling the city (Dohuk) is that the Kurdish prince (Akh Shindo) in the mid of the fourth century was taking crops as taxes. He was taking two fists as taxes. The majority of Dohuk people are Kurds, there are several minorities living in Dohuk like Assyrians, Chaldeans, Arabs and Armenians. They have their own special cultural centers. Islamic religion is the religion of Dohuk city people. There are Christians and Yazidis (Jews before 1948) living there, for that we can say (Dohuk is the symbol of the union and multi - religion place). All of the them are living together like brothers to improve the city. The relations between the members of the family within Dohuk city are very strong. The youngest respects the oldest and listens to his or her advises. The Kurdish woman has a great role within the family and community.
The Dohuk people are speaking Kurdish which is apart of the Indo-European languages. The clothes of men and women have their own special Kurdish clothes. Those clothes are very beautiful. Also they wear the international clothes. Dohuk people respect and appreciate guests and the foreign people Dohuk city is not clear in the ancient history centuries but the significance of Dohuk location regarding the commercial and military sides is clear in the archaeological sites in the suburbs of the city as follows:
1- Charstwin cave, Auskani rule (147- 226 B. C)
2- Malta hill, Assyrian rule(900 B.C)
3- Halmata Cave, by the Assyrian King Sanharib(704-681 B.C)
The Islamic armies near in (641) arrived at Dohuk city as a result a new way of living appeared in the city. In 1236 Dohuk became a center for Dacen emirate. Then Hasan Bag Saifadin was able to join with Bahdinan. In 1842 when Bahdinan emirate was destroyed by Ottomans, Dohuk was joined to Mosul province. In 1873 became a district. Later according to the call of the Kurdish liberation movement leadership. The Iraqi government in 27th of may province diary (1894) mentioned that " There were (11) small school or private school in Dohuk city, among them 7 for Moslems 2 for Christians and 2 for Jews. Their task was to educate children." In 1928 the first primary school for girls was opened in Dohuk. For more information in 1920 there were only (5) school for girls in all over Iraq. According to the available information, Dohuk municipality was established in 1935. In the 19th of March 1937 on the waters of Dohuk valley springs, for the first time the water project of Dohuk was inaugurated. In (1941- 1942) Dohuk electricity was private then in (1952-1953) the government set up the great electricity machines and a new net work of electricity for Dohuk city. That was Dohuk city, which was like a big village. Now it is a big and developed city, out of (300) thousands person. There are several hotels, restaurants (first class), radio stations (5), and television stations (3). A school gallery there was more than (4) artistic teams, printing presses (4), sport clubs (4), and magazines (12) papers which issued all over the year. According to the security council resolution No 688 which was issued in 1991 regarding finding a save heaven for the Iraqi Kurdistan. Dohuk city was included from that time more than (8) organization related to United Nations, Non-governmental agencies (54) and Local agencies are (13) working in Dohuk city. The Kurdish liberation movement especially (KDP) and Kurdistan people are looking to Dohuk very proudly because of the unity and solidarity of this city's.